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An FDD Review Attorney’s Perspective: The Importance of Reviewing your FDD and Franchise Agreement

Brian Loffredo is an attorney with Offit Kurman, P.A., a mid-Atlantic law firm.  Brian has assisted hundreds of franchisees nationwide with their FDD and franchise agreement reviews.  If you have questions with this article, or would like an initial consultation to discuss your FDD review, call him at (301) 575-0345. A typical FDD review can be completed for under $2,000.00.


If you have seriously considered a franchise, chances are you have been presented with a Franchise Disclosure Document (“FDD”) for review.  And, if you are like most people, you probably cringed when you saw it. FDDs are not pretty, and many of them are so thick they could stop a bullet. However, despite their cumbersome existence, FDDs contain useful information that should be considered. This information is broken down into 23 “items” of information that must be disclosed to potential franchisees at least 14 days prior to signing a franchise agreement, for example:

Items 1 and 2.These items include information about the company and its affiliates.  They also provide information as to the business experience of the executives in charge of the franchisor.  Executives with less franchise experience should be eyed carefully. Prospective franchisees may also wish to research the executives listed, to see if those executives have worked for failing franchise systems in the past.

Item 3. This item discloses certain litigation to which the franchisor is a party.  A large number of cases can be an indicator of a troubled system.  This is particularly true if the cases involve allegations of fraud against the Franchisor. However, the number of litigation cases will mean different things depending on the size of the system. A small system with many cases is more troubling than a large system with a few disgruntled franchisees.

Item 12. This item discusses whether or not you will receive a protected territory, and may discuss circumstances where you can lose that territory. For many franchisees, a protected territory is vital. Therefore, franchisees should pay careful attention to this section, and should pay equal attention to the franchise agreement, to make sure the territory is clearly set out.

Item 13.  This section discusses the franchisor’s trademarks. Because the marks are an important part of the franchise, franchisees should make sure that the marks are described, and that the franchisor has registered them with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Item 20.  Item 20 identifies other franchised outlets, as well as transfers of those outlets, in a tabular format.  It also sets forth other information, such as projected openings. Item 20 breaks down the information by year and state, and it very useful for many purposes.  For one thing, Item 20 can be indicator of the health of the system. Numerous transfers and terminations may indicate turmoil or unhappiness among franchisees. Additionally, a system that grows to fast may also be of concern, especially for a younger and less seasoned franchise system. The geographical location of other franchisees is also important.  Franchisees opening in new and distant states may find that marketing dollars are less likely to be spent in their territories, and may also find that the franchised concept is not a good fit for their region of the country. Item 20 can thus serve a useful tool for franchisees conducting due diligence.

Item 22.  Item 22 includes what are without question the most important pieces of information – the contracts you will be required to sign, including the franchise agreement. Because the franchise relationship will continue for many years, it is imperative that you understand the franchise agreement before you sign it. While the FDD provides great summaries of certain provisions of the franchise agreement, it is the franchise agreement that counts.

The above categories represent a small portion of the information that should be reviewed prior to opening a new franchise. Navigating through the world of information can be a daunting task.  For this reason, every prospective franchisee should consider having an attorney review their FDD and franchise agreement. A skilled franchise attorney can guide you through the licensing process, protect your interests, and help you become invested in your new franchise.

If you have any questions regarding the content of this article, or any other franchise law matter, please contact Brian Loffredo at 301.575.0345 or by e-mail at



Franchise | 301.575.0345

Brian Loffredo is a commercial litigator with more than fifteen years of experience representing clients in the franchise industry. Brian routinely assists clients during the licensing and franchise/FDD review process, as well as with the resolution of franchise-related disputes, including those involving terminations, territorial disputes, fraud, disclosure/relationship law violations and breaches of contract.

In addition, Brian represents and counsels clients in the construction industry on matters involving litigation, construction defects, licensing and compliance, collections, mechanic’s liens, payment bond and Miller Act claims, contract drafting, and compliance with home improvement laws and other construction industry laws.

Brian also has extensive experience representing financial institutions with workouts, collections and residential / commercial foreclosures.


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